Mr. Tesla's Personal Exhibit At The World's Fair

Wednesday, November 29, 1893
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THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER. 467 pole projections of the field and armature within it are similarly magnetized, and upon the cessation or reversal of the current the armature and tield repel each other and rotation is produced in this way. Another interesting exhibit, shown at G, is an early model of a two tield motor energized by currents of differ- ent phase. There are two independent tields of laminated iron joined by brass bolts; in each field is mounted an armature, both armatures being on the same shaft. The armatures were originally so arranged as to be placed in any position relatively to each other and the tields also were arranged to be connected in a number of ways. The motor has served for the exhibition of a number of fea- tures ; among other things, it has been used as a dynamo for the production of currents of any frequency between wide limits. In this ease the tield, instead of being ener- gized by direct current was energized by currents differing in phase, which produced a rotation of thc tield ; the arma- ture was then rotated in the same or in opposite direction to the movement of the field and so any number of alterna- tions of the t'urrents imlileed in the a|'|natu|'e, froin a small to a high number, determined by the l`requeney oi' the energizing tield coils and the speed of the armatnre, was with twelve independent coils ; this number, as Mr. Tesla pointed out in his tirst lecture, being divisible by two and three, was selected in order to malie various eoinieotions for 2 and 3-phase operations, and during i\lr. 'l`esla’s experi- ments was used in many ways with front 2 to ti phases. . ... 1' A Fics. 7, 8 Ann 9. The model, Fig. 2, consists of a magnetic |`rame ol' laminated iron with four polar projections between which an armature is supported on brass bolts passing t.ln~ough the frame. A great variety of armatures was used in connection with these two and other iields. Some of the armaturcs are table, Fig. 1, and several are also shown in front on the shown enlarged in Figs. fl to 14. An interesting exhibitis that shown at I., Fig. l. This is an Z\l'll|1\llI|'t‘ of liartlenecl steel \\'l\h-li was used in a 1l<-|\n>i\sl|'||ln-l`ore the Society of Arts in Boston, by l’rol`. Anthony. Another curious °l’f‘}‘"°'1' _ _ exhibit is shown enlarged in Fig. 5. This consists of thick llw lllflllflft U, 1, -l» "0l{l"’*‘l"\L 3 "f*1'1°tY_ ef l`“ii'll-lflg Hem disos of wrought iron plared lengthwise, with a_in:1ss of synchronous motors which are ot special value m long ,,‘,l,l,c,. can m.O,,,,d t],,,m_ The discs ‘ww m.,.,,,,gw1 long `-'“" _:il :. i":t "` , ,ss " ,\` gt , ~sS@1~-~;~=s»_¢ ~ ~~f t . ,_ , S i e .. "-»--r§i<=.§+'~.;§t,es;is -V _ ,_ VA ___ .... _~,..._¢-.. 4. I ._ _ I ~»._ my - V. ~ ' _, , ' ’ ~ ' _ \,_,, ere. st é " -=~` _ un -7' ‘ " ' t ,V I ~, 1 Fics. 2 AND 3.-Trista Rouriso FIELD Morons Exnnsvrim in His LECTURE Barons 'rum A. I. E. E., May, 1888. distance transmission work. The principle embodied in these motors was enunciated by Mr. Tesla in his lecture before the American institute of Electrical Engineers, in May, 1888. It involves t.he production of the rotating field in one of the elements of the motor by currents dif- fering in phase and energizing the other element by direct currents. The armatures are ofthe two and three phase type. li is a model of a motor shown in an enlarged view in Fig. 2. This machine together with that shown in Fig. 3 were models exhibited at the same lecture, in May, 1888. They were the first rotating tit-ld motors which were independently tested, having for that purpose been placed in the hautls of l’rof. Anthony in the winter of 1887-88. From these tests it was shown that the ef- Flus. 4, 5 AND 0. ticiency and output of these motors was quite satisfactory in every respect. It was intended to exhibit the model shown in Fig. 3 but it was unavailable for that purpose owing to the fact that it was some time ago handed over to tho care of Prof. Ayrton in England, This model was originally provided itudinally to afford an easier starting by 1'easo1i of the in- duced current formed in the iron discs, which differed in armature would phase from those in the copper) This start with asingle circuit and run in synchronism, and represents one of the earliest types of such an armature. Fig. 9 is another striking exhibit. This is one of the earliest types of an armature \Vllll holes beneath the periphery, in which copper conductors are embedded. The armature has eight closed eirouits :md was used in many different ways. Fig. 8 is a type of synchronous armature consisting of a block of soft steel wound with a coil t-loscd upon itself. This armaturc was used in con- nection with the lield shown in Fig. 2 and gave excellent results. Fig. 6 represents eoil around a body coil at right angles for the purpose of found very elfective in this connection. Figs. 10 and 12 sho\v a favorite construction of armaturc; the iron body is made up of two sets of discs cut away and placed at right angles to each other, the int(-rstiues being wound \vith coils. The one shown in Fig. 12 is provided with an additional groove on each of the projections formed by the discs, for the purpose of increasing the starting torque by a wire wound in these p|'o_icot.iin|s. Fig. I1 is it form ofarlnature similarly constructed, but with four ilnlepcnnlent coils wound upon the four projections. This ariuature was a synchronous armature with a large of iron. There is another very small to the lirst. This small tzoil was used increasing the starting torque and was

468 THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER. [V01-XVL 140-291- used to reduce the speed of the motor with reference to that of the generator. Fig. 4 is still another armature with a great number of independent circuits closed upon them- selves, so that all the dead points on the armature are done away with and the armature has a large starting torque. Fig. 7 is another type of armature for a. four-pole motor but with coils wound upon a smooth surface. A number _ eh e Fins. 10, 11 AND 12. of these armatures have hollow shafts, as they have been used in many ways. Figs. 13 and 14 represent armatures to which either alternating or direct current was conveyed by means of sliding rings. Fig. 13 consists of asoft iron body with a single coil wound around it, the ends of the coil be- ing connected to two sliding rings to which usually direct current was conveyed. The armature shown in Fig. 14 has three insulated rings on a shaft and was used in con- nection with t\vo or three phase circuits. All these models shown represent early work, and the enlarged engravings are made from photographs taken early in 1888. There is a great number of other models which were exhibited, but which are not sharply brought out in the engraving Fig. 1. For example at M is a model of a motor comprising an armature with a hollow shaft wound with two or three coils for 2 or 3-phase circuits; the armature was arranged to be stationary and the generating circuits were comiccted directly tn the generator. Around the arma- lnro is arranged to rotate on its shaft a casting forming six closed circuits. On the outside this casting was turned smooth and the belt was placed on it for driving with any desired appliance. This also is a very early model. (ln the left side of the table there is shown a large variety of models, N, o, r, etc., with lields of various shapes. Each of these models involves some distinct idea and they_ all represent the gradual development chiefly interesting as showing Mr. Tesla’s efforts to adapt his sys- cm to the existing high frequencies. On the right side of the table, at s, r, are shown, on separate supports, larger and more perfected armatures of commercial motors, and in the space around the table a variety of motors and generators supplying current to them was exhibited. The high frequency exhibit embraced Mr. Tesla’s lirst original apparatus used in his investigations. There was exluiluited a glass tube with one layer of silk covered wiro wound at the top and a copper ribbon on the inside. This was the first disruptive discharge coil constructed by him. At U is shown the disruptive discharge coil exhibited by him in his lecture before the American Institute of Elec- trical Engineers, in May, 1891. At V and W are shown some of the lirst high frequency transformers. A number 3" ___ i.....>,..._..\. rmfgeswf' ~ Flos. 18 AND 14. of various fields and armatures of small models of high frequency apparatus is shown at x aml v and others not visible in the picture were exhibited. In the annexed space the dynamo used by Mr. Tesla at Columbia Col- lege was exhibited ; also another form of high frequency dynamo used. In this space also was arranged a battery of Leyden jars and his large disruptive discharge coil which was used for exhibiting the light phenomena in the dark room. The coil was operated at only a small fraction of its capacity as the necessary condensers and transformers could not be had and as Mr. Tesla’s stay waslirnited to one week ; notwith- standing, the phenomena were ofa striking character. In the room were arranged two large plates placed at a distance of about eighteen feet from each other. Between them were placed two long tables with all sorts of phosphorcscent bulbs and tubes; man of these were pre iared with great care and marked legiblry with the names which would shine with phosphorescent glow. Among them we noted some with the names of Helmholtz, Faraday, Maxwell, Henry, Franklin, etc. Mr. Tesla had also not forgotten the great- est living poet of his own country Zmaj Jovan; two or three were prepared with inscriptions, like “ Welcome Electricians,” and produced a beautiful effect. Each rep- resented some phase of this work and stood for some in- dividual experiment of importance. Outside the room was the small battery seen in Fig. I5, for the exhibition of some of the impedance and other phenomena of interest. Thus, for instance, a thick copper bar bent in arched form was provided with clamps for the attachment of lamps, and a number of lamps were kept at incandescence on the bar; there was also a little motor shown on the table operated by the disruptive discharge. *fr qn .1 .I ~=~.¢».<. << .".r. ,_,_.,'"f'T» .;f,., 5 . 1 . is “ "r f ~' ‘ ~ ' . V i if 5? , ~ ;, . .2 rg r '1 0 , , 1 st 3` a t Ep z l as 1% I a .l .45 _ 1, , 3 ~ .- _.f .1 5 rg , _ f ",,.:~ gf -,___ o. ‘ ,..,.,§., : , ~ . ‘ ‘ 245: v FIG. 15. As will be remembered the \Vcstinghouse Company made a. line exhibit of the various ooniniercial motors of the Tesla system and also the twelve generators in Machinery Hall were of the two-phase type constructed for distribut- ing light and power. Mr. Tesla, as is also known, exhibited some models of his oscillators. It was Mr. Tesla’s inten- tion to exhibit his motor and high frequency apparatus only during the Congress week, but it was allowed to rc- main on exhibition on account of a generally expressed desire. Furthermore as Mr. Tesla had only a week’s notice to prepare his lecture all his time was taken up for this purpose, otherwise his motor, and especially his high fre- quency, exhibit would have been more complete. 'rue FAIR in ‘94. Tim South Park Board of Commissioners of Chicago held a joint meeting with the executive committee of the \Vorld’s Fair directory recently and decided to accept the Fair buildings and a sum of money suflicient to keep them in repair for some time. The state buildings and many of the foreign buildings will be removed. The park Will be improved, and next season there will be electric displays, fireworks, etc. All the buildings will be open and the walks and roadways will be kept in perfect condition.

466 THE ELECTRIC MR. TESLA’S PERSONAL EXHIBIT AT THE WORLD'S FAIR. Wnimc the exhibits of firms engaged in the manufacture of electrical apparatus of every description, at the Fair, afforded the visitor ample opportunity for gaining an :xcellent knowledge of the state of the art, therc were also AL ENGINEER. [Vol. XVI. No.'29l. shapes at considerable distances and at great speeds. This ring was wound for two-phase circuits, and the winding was so distributed that a practically uniform field was obtained. This ring was prepared for Mr. Tesla’s exhibit by Mr. U. F. Scott, electrician of the \Vestinghouse Elec- tric and Manufacturing Company. A smaller ring, shown at rc, was arranged like the one ex- hibited at A but dvsiglicd specially to exhibit tho rotatioll of an armatnre in a rotating licld. ln connection \vit.h those two rings there was an interesting exhibit shown by Mr. Tesla which consisted of a magnet with a coil, the magnet being arranged to rotate in bearings. \Vith this magnet he first demonstrated the identity between a rotating field and a rotating magnet, the latter, when rotated, exhibiting the same phenomena as the rings when they were energized by currents of differing phase. Another prominent ex- hibit is a model illustrated at <2 which is a two-phase motor, as well as an induction motor and transformer. It consists of a large outer ring of laminated iron wound with two superimposed, separated windings which can be connected in a variety of ways. This is one of the first models used by Mr. Tesla as an induction motor and rotating trans- former. The armatnre was either a steel or wrought iron disc with a closed coil. \Vhen thc motor was operated ~ _ ,__- -.» "1 .. -, » . -»~ , | ,, | ' ‘ 5' ` @~<§ GZ. " ' i ' -§< f-?" §?§ ` -35 f f'“7”fl " sms* - ~_ . . if .; .. ~ > a ‘ AFA; ‘ c ,fg,_.._ , 1 § Iétirfe 2 -.. _._. , ~° :;~~:~- ' _ _- M 3 _-ie., » ~ .1 i 5 , sf * . as 3' K--f ~ g M ~~_»- _*U ~¢~~ ~~c,$_k, __ . 7;~_:{g; _ _ ~ t I i ' ..._ _ ri:-fs.. P .`fi.l' 1 ,_i` 3 »»-~ __ .. » 1z~z*=. tr' I ~ 'f¢“"°‘ V . - _ ., »‘1:~~ .L_ ~ ~» ~ 4-_ ,__ _ 51 :pea \=,=»,»; "W-_'E »_ , In < "_ 5 "‘_ . , ‘ ... fi »$“*,,». 'f = ,. y - 'R ~ fe__~,l . if 4 i " ' f ~ ~. `\' b `~ f l‘=~”~4@¥"‘ "17'»‘-li.” ~ K- . '”"3¥‘“3 Yi. 7-»\ ._ .' l'1if4.L-.~"", "‘1-.1 » is 'T .~. \"' ' ` `1~_ .r 41% »:. .4f=v“"*’s e - . ‘ ' ' _ ' ._ __ , "' i '?il"- J ' ide. ‘ .3 -ww ,V " -~ W . ~ . " ` - i ie; ` ,',*»¢~““‘.-_ X '\ r ,Q t ` , .,,.,. " _ ‘r ~ ,.\ l `ff3i.é~ :}v 1 7' ~ i l ,il si” -, .;a‘*“”"& _' " f ‘~;~: ’ ' _ a 37" _Q ~ r . /F -»*’r° ¢;_g‘.n~\~ gg; r , ~ v, .-ae.. 6 ;_ M* ’ H, g ft ,gf "’ , Q: f , V t, Q; i . ls. .w »-._ - i, . < #"" -_ _ if ~ .» »<. " »»-"'l' ' _. ;;»-*;»»"‘Z" . E14 ai” , ' #sf » . *t r ',f1~*€"fT _, fe “ e . _. . _», .~_.. 4 ._»¢»»< ._.-ef' _ ' ' 4 fl ` ` ` fr; , T`Pi¥?i'*“7"i"_L.¢~ ` ' "4 . ' ' . _ ‘ »- - j__ .v - ‘J ai' ‘ ~4=H,,1,f 3 H g ' _ . T T _a i ‘ ' ` 2 “ .__ :£__"; '""i ”__"_ Flo. 1.-Mn. TESLA'S Psnsonst. Exunsxr AT 'rim W0llLD°S Fam. numbers of exhibits which brought out into strong relief the work of the individual inventor, which lies at the foundation of much, if not all, of our present achievement. Prominent among such personal exhibits was that of Mr. Nikola Tesla, whose apparatus occupied part of the space of thc \l/estinghousc Company. This apparatus represents the results of work and thought covering a period of ten years. It embraces a large number of different alternating motors and Mr. Teslafs earlier high frequency apparatus. The motor exhibit con- sisted of a variety of fields and armatures for two, three and multiphase circuits, and gave a fair idea of the gradual evolution of the fundamental idea of the rotating magnetic Held. The high frequency exhibit included Mr. Tesla’s earlier machines and disruptive discharge coils and high frequency transformers, which he used in his investigations and some of which are referred to in his published papers. Our engraving, Fig. 1, shows a view of part of the exhibits containing the motor apparatus. Among these there is shown at A a large ring which is intended to exhibit the phenomena of the rotating magnetic Held. The field pro- duced was very powerful and exhibited striking effects, revolving copper balls and eggs and bodies of various from a two phase generator the windings were connected in two groups, as usual. \Vhcu used ns an indlu-tion motor then the current induced in one of the windings of the ring was passed through the other winding on the ring and so the motor operated with only two wires. \\'hen used as a transformer the outer winding served, for instance, as a sccondaryand the inner as a primary. The model shown at xr is one of the earliest rotating iicld motors, consisting of a thin iron ring wound with two sets of coils and an armature consisting of a series of steel discs partly cut away and arranged on a small arbor. _ At E is shown one of the first rotating ticld or induction motors used for the regulation of an arc lamp and for other purposes. It comprises a ring of discs with two sets of coils having different self~inductions, one set being of Ger- man silver and the other of copper wire. The armature is wound with two closed eircuited coils at right angles to each other. To the armature shaft are fastened levers and other devices to eifect the regulation. At F is shown a model of a magnetic lag motor; this embodies a casting with pole projections protruding from two coils between which is arranged to rotate a smooth iron body. When an alternating current is sent through the two coils the