Electricity At The World's Fair

Saturday, November 11, 1893
Archived Page: 

lttilttt itll WW EVERY SATURDAY. © No. xx CHICAGO, SEPTEMBER 9, 1893. Vol. XIII. Electricity at the World’s Fair. Aside from several distinguished members ol' the cou- gress who remained to see the exposition, two notable Egures attracted attention in the elec’ricity building last week-Thomas A. Edison and Nikola Tesla. Mr. Edison paid several visits to the building, strictly in the capacity of a spectator, and greatly enjoyed his inspection of the exhibits. Mr. Tesla gave a number ofexperiments before invited guests and the general public. On Tuesday after- noon be repeated, at the agricultural assembly hall, the substance ol' his lecture on “Mechanical and Electrical Oscillaturs," which was delivered before the members of the congress on the preceding Friday. On this cccasion he had for an audience von Helmholtz and a number of other scienris's who had bteu unable to attend the Hrst lecture. On Tuesday evening Mr. Telsa repeated his beauiiful and interesting high tension and high frequency :irperiments in the dark pavilion of the Westinghouse :om- pany in electricity building before a number of foreign en- gineers, including W. H. Preece, H. D. Wilkinson, MM. Mascart and de la Touanne, Dr. Lobach, F. W. Tischeu~ dnerfer and others. He also instructed and entertained other parties of visitors at intervals during the week at the same place by similsr demonstrations. In conversation with a representative of the WESTERN ELECTRI- CIAN, however, Mr. Telsa said that he considered his researches into oscillatory phenomena, and the results that he had already obtained in that direction, his greatest work, and that he hoped to continue his investigations until he could present the world a system of mechanical and electrical vibration of commercial utility. The German historical exhibit of electrical apparatus which is illustrated on this page can be found in the cen- tral portion of the easterngallery' of the electricity building, and the collection, which has only lately been opened to the public, will well repay a visit, as it is alike instructive to the student and interesting to the casual visitor. Here are shown devices which are claimed to substantiate the assertion that three of the grmt applications of electricity -the electric~telegraph, the electric speaking telephone and long-distance power transmission-were tirst made in Germany. The articles show.-1 were contributed largely by Siemens & Halske, ol Berlin, although a number were obtained ‘from the Imperial German Postofiice Department and other sources. The central feature of the display, at the back of the exhibit, is a bust of Werner von Siemens, the great German electrician, of heroic size, conspicuously placed undera large canopy. To the right, on a pedestal, is a life-sized bust of Sommer-ring, for whom is claimed the honor of inventing the electric telegraph. On the left is a bust of Philip Reis, who is undoubtedly entitled tothe distinction of having invented the Erst electric speaking telephone, crude though it undoubtedly was. the date being rS6t. On either side of these busts are bas-relief heads of Gauss and Weber, all ol the sculptured figures being outlined against a background of dark crimson cloth, which conceals the side ofthe building. Ou this background is also arranged a series of framed photo- graphs showing the primary and secondary stations of the three-phase installation used in_ the Lauien-Frankfort power transmission experiment, with pictures of the line construction and of the work accomplished by this elec- trically transmitted power at the Frankfort electrical exposition. One of the oil insulators used is also shown. It will be remembered that the Germans succeeded in transmitting 300 horse power over tco miles at a pressure

124 of 3o,o:>0 volts, and of this achievement they are naturally not a little proud. Arranged in front of the busts are a number of interesting relics. An effort was made to se- cure the apparatus used by Siimmerring in his first experi- ments with the galvanic telegraph, some eighty years ago, but without success, as the descendents of the noted physicist, who reside in Frankfort, would not consent to the removal of the instruments to America, even tempo- rarily. Models of the Reis telephone instruments are shown, however. One of the most interesting features of the collection is the electro-magnetic telegraphic apparatus of Gauss and Weber, which was devised about 1833. It is big and clumsy, and the signals were recorded by means of a reading telescope and a mirror. A piece of the wire used in the first telegraph line in Goetgtingen in the year mentioned is shown, with printed copies of some interest- esting letters written at that time to the mayor of the town by Prof. Weber. Appropriately placed near the cen- tral bust is the first machine built in Germany on the dynamoelectric principle. It was invented by Werner von Siemens, and brought out in 1366. This interesting ex- hibit has but one armature winding. It is tzrefully pre- served. Among the other Siemens & Halske appliances is the hrst dynamo with a von Hefner-Alteneck drum arma- ture, which dates from 1S72, and a Gramme ring machine WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. company, Caldwell electric cloth cutter, Electrical Engrav- ing company, Electric Appliance company, Electric Heat Alarm company, Eureka Tempered Copper company, Chas. F. Hall, Gamewell Fire Alarm & Telegraph company, McNeil-Tinder Electric company, Newman Clock & Manufacturing company, Reliance Gauge com- pany, Weston Electrical Instrument company and others. The idea of this souvenir originated with George B. Clark, who displayed much energy in pushing the plan to completion. Luther Stieringer, the designer of the electric fountains at the World's Fair, left for New York on Saturday, The evidence 0f Mr. Stieringer’s second visit to the fair since the opening can be seen in the greatly improved operation of the fountains, which are now taking their rightful posi- tion among the great popular attractions on the grounds. Mr. Stieringer hopes to return before the close of the fair to inspect the exposition as a spectator. Of the four exhibit spaces in electricity building occupied by the Westinghouse Electric 3: Manufacturing company, the two most prominent, which are located in the nave of the building, are shown in Figs 2 and 3. This company has about I§,000 square feet of space in this building in addition to its great _ alternating incandescent plant in machinery hall. In the exhibit par- - :- . 3; i'-`2"sI~C"':_¢-tit' , l i 1- » ~ ” ` ‘ J f ‘»s=:~f.é?f~s ‘li-9' -r -V 1 ' ‘ ~ ,. . ¢ Q51 ,--;>‘~»-,-. -; ' ,~" , - .f - ‘Je fifiiff 7 . 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" V .- .1 ' ~‘ 7 /' _ Q V I . , L.. _ , - ,. .W-` _,_ » _ ,_ ,_. FIG. 2. ELECTRICITY AT THE \VORLD'S FAIR.-EXHIBIT produced between '75 and ’8o. The latter was a commer- cial machine, with commutator and bmshes that do not differ greatly from the type of to-day. Another machine that excites attention is an old flat ring dynamo, with an armature that also serves as a commutator by placing the brushes on the outside winding, as is done in the large Siemens & Halske generator in machinery hall. The Siemens 8: Halske display also includes the oldest unipolar dynamo, an old electric drill, an interesting col- lection of historical lamps, including the first diderential arc lamp of von Hefner-Alteneck and the standard amyl- acetate lamp, and many measuring instruments, among which is a selenium photometer made by Werner von Siemens in 1811. The first electric locomotive built by Siemens & Halske, which was produced in 1879, is ac- corded a prominent position in the middle ofthe space, and it appears curious and antiquated when compared with the electric railway motors of the present day. In the northern portion of the space are many old instruments that are worthy of inspection. These include a number of the telegraphic appliances used by Siemens in the ‘4o’s, the original machine for pressing gutta percha for insulation, old resistance boxes, galvanometers and the like. A number of the gallery exhibitors in the electricity building have united in issuing a neat little souvenir for presentation to visitors. This memento consists of a booklet containing a por- trait of Chief Barrett and views of the exhibits of the Ansonia Electric company, W, R. Brixey, Bates Manufac- turing compiny, Commercial Cable company. North American Phonograph company, Edison Manufacturing OF THE WESTINGIIOUSE COMI-"A!\'Y, ELECTRICITY BUILDING. ticular attention is paid tothe transmission of power by the Tesla polyphase system. The space illustrated in Fig. 2 is that in the northern portion of the building. It contains the beautiful Westinghouse golden pavilion and also the Tesla generating station, although the machinery of the latter is not shown in the picture. The current is carried from this section by an overhead pole line, shown in Fig 2, to a receiving station, Fig, 3, where it is utilized for various purposes. A very mmplete account of this system is given in Mr. Scott`s paper, which is presented on page 126 of this issue, and it is therefore unnecessary to dwell further on it here. The exhibit of street railway apparatus is principally contained in the space illustrated in Fig. 3. It includes one 27o horse power multipolar gen- erator directly connected to a Westinghouse compound engine; one 4oo horse power multipolar generator of the belt-driven type; several Westinghouse street railway motors-single reduction-of eo, 25 and 30 horse power capacity; one Brownell 29 foot mr equipped with two 31 horse power Westinghouse motors-single reduction- series multiple controller, etc.: one Stephenson 16 foot car equipped with two 3o horse power Westinghouse motors -single rtduction-series multiple controller, etc. There is also a complete line of switches, ammeters, voltmeters, automatic circuit breakers, lightning arresters, switch- board fittings and connections and motor details illustrat- ing constmction. In addition the Westinghouse company exhibits a Lamokin ear in the transporfation build- ing. This car is 18 feet long and is equipped with two 30 horse power single reduction mo- tors and a series multiple controller. The company September 9, 1893 also shows a Laclede car similarly equipped on the exhibition tracks near the terminal station. The cars in electricity building are placed over a pit, so that visitors can inspect the motors and connections from beneath. The company also makes a large exhibit of arc and incan- descent lighting apparatus and of general electrical sup- plies. Included in this list may be mentioned standard Westinghouse alternators of various sizes, including a field casting of a 45o kilowatt belt-driven alternator, showing the Westinghouse method of casting laminated poles into cast iron frame; standard Westinghouse converters and transformers; special converters equipped with non-arcing metal lightning arresters; direct current motors and gen- erators of the horizontal type; direct current generators and motors of the “letter” type; direct current generators of the multipolar type; direct current motors of the Man- chester type; alternating current arc light dynamos; Shall- lenberger alternating current meters, complete and in op- eration, also parts illustrating construction; Wurts non- arcing metal lightning arresters for alternating current circuits, in operation; lightning arresters of various types for direct current circuits; switches for alternating and direct current work; ammeters and voltmeters for direct and alternating currents. One of the most interesting sections of the display is B 1, in the southeastern portion of the building. Here, in addition to Shallenberger me- ters and Wurts non-arcing metal lightning arresters, is the personal exhibit of Nikola Tesla and the dark room in which the Tesla experiments are shown. 'Same of the early motors designed by Mr. Tesla are shown, and also the parts ofa small machine built in an attempt to produce a self-exciting altemator. The head of Columbus, occu- pying the large wall space at the south end of the build- ing, together with the decorative scrolls and letters, and which is made up of Sawyer~Man stopper incandescent lamps lighted by current from the circuits of the Exposi- tion company, which are supplied by the Westinghouse central station plant in machinery hall, completes the dis- play in electricity building. The Sires! Railway Gazette has issued in pamphlet form its "Directory of Street Railway Exhibits at the World's Fair." The compilation has -been carefully made and should be of great assistance to all particularly interested in the appliances used in street railway work. The Turin jubilee pole for arc lamps, which was illus- n-ated in the WESTERN Etccrnrcran of April nad last. has at last arrived on the World’s Fair grounds. It has been erected in the General Electric company’s space in the electricity building, near the tower of light, instead of in the rear of the administration building, as was originally, intended. The General Electric company’s Eve-'oct projector, which is claimed to equal the largest Schuckert search- light on the manufactures building in power, has been erected on the colonnade between the machinery and agri- cultural buildings. This huge lamp stands about I0 feet 6 inches high to the upper side of the ventilator on the top of the drum, and the total weight is about 5,5oo pounds. The reflecting lens mirror used in this projector is 60 inches in diameter. It isa concave spherical mirror of the Mangin type, and was manufactured especially for this projector in Paris. It is a fine specimen of optical work, 3% inches thick at the edges and 1 16 inch thick at the center, weighing about 7oo pounds. This mirror is mounted at one end of the big drum, the other end of which is furnished with a door consisting of a metal rim in which are fixed a number of plate-glass strips 5-16 inch thick by 6 inches wide. Inside this drum, and sliding upon ways arranged on the bottom, is placed the ar: lamp, which is entirely automatic in its action, is 6 feet high, and weighs about 4no pounds. The upper or positive arbon is 1% inches in diameter and 22% inches long, with a 5-16 inch core ol soft carbon run- ning from end to end through its center. The lower or negative carbon is IX inches in diameter, 15 inches long, and also has a core of soft carbon mnning through it. In addition, its outer surface is heavily coated with copper. The positive carbon is set a little in front of the negative, and thus almost all the intense light of the incandescent crater is cat upon the reflector. The maximum current at which this lamp operates is zoo amperes, and at this cur- rent the lamp is calculated to have a luminous intensity of about 9o,ooo to 100,000 candles, which is multiplied many times by the mirror. Ventilators at the top and sides al- low a constant current of air to pass through the drum and dissipate the heat generated by the arc lamp; and they are so arranged that no light can scape through them. All the connections for adjusting the positions of the car- bons and the lamp are brought through the drum to the outside, and are arranged in close proximity to one another at one side, so that all may be manipulated by the operator

September 9, 1893 without moving from his position. The drum is supported by trnnnious in bearings at the top of a Y»shaped fork, set in a base-plate. and the whole is supported on a system of friction wheels, forming a turntable resting upon the top of a massive pedestal, supportingthe whole structure. The drum, fork and base plate may be rotated horizontally on the turntable either by hand or by gearing proyided for this purpose. The drum may also be raised or lowered in a vertical plane. The thirty-ton electric locomotive exhibited by the Gen- eral Electric company on the tracksnear the terminal sta- tion is now operated at rt A. M. and 3 and S P. xr. daily. R. H. Pierce, the electrical engineer of the exposition, and L. S. Boggs, the assistant engineer for electrical power, have prepared a table showing the number, distri- bution and capacity of the electric motors in the service plant at the World’s Fair. This table, which gives an ex- cellent idea of the extended use of electrically transmitted power at jackson Park, is given below: t r r MOTORS IN use AT Tut: wotu.D's t-‘Arrt. Exposition. l r-;triittttt>rs_ - 'rotti Location. No. of y Nt.. or No. of H P .Motors r-r_P_ Motors t-r.t>_ Motors - - tiiirtsis ning .._. ._ l ' r 5 t 5 Transportation ...... i r 1,, ' 36 race; ‘ 31 tiny; Mines and writting... 1 l yeast is 69 i ,S mi, Agricultural .....,.., 7 i 237 3 se ttf; I 33 zssfi Manufactures .,,.,. __ __ i ._ 1 tr tsit i or ,Sig Machinery r-rail ,,___ ,S , ,gs i 13 est; as tam; Hertititrttrrai ........ _ ~ ._ ts iii, i s me Anthropological ..._, _ _ r l r r Government _,., ..., l __ i _ _ ts ~ 3614 l 6 357; wsatiisr Bureau ____ i _ , t ,tt r tg.; Terminal station __._ , ._ » _ _ r r i r 1 Administration, _ __, rs l tus 2 \, ` rt Mt, risrisrrts _.,._.,__,_ t 1 i to r t ‘ 3 it clam nits _____ ...i __ l , s 3 i s 5 Costa Ries _,._,____ ; __ , __ , r 5 r 5 Leather _.__ _._. _ __ , 5 its i r ; ts us Choral nitirtririg ____, i __ _ i , is i , .1 KansasStnte.. 1 _ i __ i i r i t r German rtiteiitii ___. _ __ __ l r r l i r New vttrtt stats. ..._ i l __ _ i i so i ss wrists sttir Litre _ , t % i . ig Stereotype_ ,,____ __ i __ ___ i i is r rc Ptttit ____,__,__ ._.___ . __ ‘ i rs r ~ .5 watt-itstt's nit-itiirig _‘ 2 .tt i i r .t Midway i>iaisaii¢¢__‘ r t, t, at 4 is 7, Dairy rziiiiaiirg ______ . 3 so, ._ ‘ 3 sm osiry nsrr. No. is... r 6 i 6 ssrtii-t nttiitiiri»r__ _; t tw, ‘ t s tp, Ntw smite ning 1 . ii, r .15 sswsrags Cleansing , 1 _ w°rits_._ ,___ __ t 1 it , i 2, Crematory _ _.__, __ . i t, . ., Carpenter shop ,,.. r 9 i ., Psirit sritip ._.., .___ t 3 r 3 Mssitstiitsi mst. , Blacksmith strip.. t it r i, nrsritsrriitii srtrip _.__ t l .i t ., Ptirripiaottse ____ r l ts r ri att, Pirtrip nriitisa i Machinery i~itiii__ r l rs __ i ts Ttitsi __,..___._.._ rs; l.,t..;;_ its l ssréir gt; swat.; As will be seen, 315 motors, with an aggregate capacity of 2,348§;{ horse power, are eennected with the exposition circuits. This does not include the large number of mo- tors in electricity building for which the exhibitors themr selves supply current frorn machinery hall, and which are not operated by the Exposition cornpauy. The following is a list of the names of the diH'erent varieties of motors op- erated ou exposition circuits; Eddy, Crocker~Wheeler Edison, Thomson-Houston, Diehl, Lundell, jenney, Westinghouse, Ferret, Sprague, Sperry, Card, Ford & Washburn, Keystone, Dunderdale, Eickemeyer, C. & C., Holtzer-Cabot, Western Electric, Kester, Wagner, De~ troit, Mather, Emerson, Mayo, Waddell-Eutz, Brush, Simpson. Additional details in relation to the elevated electric railway plant at the World`s Fair are always interesting, and so no apology is necessary for supplementing the gen- eral articles on the road that have appeared in this journal by further particulars. Electrical engineers ` will End the sectional drawing of the I5oo kilowatt generator in the power house, Fig. 4, of particular interest. The machine has twelve poles, is compound wound, and is mrefnlly insulated from the ground. The air space between the faces of the poles and the face of the arrnature is 7-16 of an inch. The armature is built up of sheet iron punchings set around a spider shrunk on the- hub. The outer face of the spider is slotted as are the inner faces of the armature punchings, so that they dove tail together. Each circle of sheet iron is carefullyinstrlated from the preceding one, except at one point, and this re- sults in giving to the armature a spiral construction. Not less than I]`,20O pieces of sheet iron, weighing 25 tons, were used to build up the nine sheet iron sections, separated from each other by eight brass open rings, resembling spoked wheels, which serve for ventilating purposes. Two four ton cast iron washers held together by bolts, complete the material composing the armature core, The winding of the arrnature consists of copper strips 3% inches wide by 14 inch thick, two turns to the coil. These are carefully in- sulated from each other‘by mica, and each couple is inserted in one of the 348 slots in the laminated arrnature body each of which is itself lined with a mica tube. The strips WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. are held in place by means of a wooden wedge. The side connections are then riveted and soldered to the strips and are brought down to the massive copper commutator. There are twelve brushes, which are manipulated by means of a hand wheel actuating a gearing concealed beneath the floor of the power house. The switchboard, Fig, 5, is made of enameled slate framed in mahogany, and is a. striking feature in the in- stallation. It is composed of five panels, one for each machine, each panel containing all the instruments neces- sary for the control of the machine to which it belongs, i. f., triple pole switches, shunt rhenstars, ammeters, auto- matic circuit breakers, lightning arresters, lightning switches, etc. The circuit breakers are of the new design ofthe General Electric company, and are provided with automatic resetting devices which close them electrically, With this electrical reset, all or any desired number of cirs cuit breakers in the station can be reset at once. The generators are adjusted so to run in perfect harmony as exactly to divide the load in proportion to their relative capacities-a nice problem with generators of such varied sizes and types. The transportation service is effected by trains running at four minute intervals, each train consist- ing of a motor car and three trailers; the trains weighing 63 tons each, seating 280 people and the gars being of the ...ref- * ‘f°"‘“ ** . ,_ .t , aft x25 ee.: E, Q _r .e§44 it ns, ; sf, t t t vpn, as -'fn ,& *'°"`t n Kg s vi’ ss* ~®;t r §,"'vv ». ~ ge., rf l & .=._ ~"5 _4,.;a= _ 3"` ssx r'--i _~¢ ._ ¢;:_.t:.,,,~_-r as.i,..s. _ _ ' l ntl , ,i_‘\ ,l..i~"r1alf?‘ - _ _g :M _ _ F _ Tf*¥"§lt ~;~si§;f ' _a».:if@§3'*?‘ ii?`:;.i*.';`5Tifi‘-"<.»1 ` §¢*'§,} tid ig - -~'=:,1.~a_:.s'=_s; 1 ' _ ,ic ti "pr it s _?g_;;; __;-,,,*‘.HQ -- is Q.. li _ f- , .» ~ l \» _ :‘,,_»;_ x§.1 _ S* 'Lf' ’ . 1 _, to _ '_ fl _§1;s->;,;&# i “ ., _; ' .2 _ ' ,,/ ~ .» s ~ A ~"- T- ’f~ S f` f 19531 'T' . . " _ ' = l l ei-t> _ f 5 5 i - .r»__s,r=1'-.f ~ r- _ _; - i ¢~-_» ~;; -u_.~_¢.<;:r` ,_ _ » _ - ~,__,. ,_ i » t`*~ J ~'r‘¥ llfi;f§r~~~1_: i » ‘ , f l Jil' ’1`_`-25?-*“ -' -~ ~ __*‘.§\~“5§'¢* " .3 _ _ "1 .f 'i fl ` ’ l ;?f*'f L-*"§~_Z'ff~§ " ‘ " "` i i_r@=‘f' so . ' ‘ .., »;;_-1- r . _,,,,v __ , ’ =_§ t _A _ ‘ ', i W 5. .rf-<=-’ ' 1 ' l _ ' 7_7 - if V. ,_ , _____3__l___.___. _ . ' , ‘f _ i i _ ._ ..,.i_,____A “‘ » -_ _, - ,La F . 5" W ‘ .‘ _ ’_ i . i if -ta---‘f;_;1 31' ex ;__» g _-arnffhg, ,' l | gl i ,__ _ Fic. 3. ntncrxrcrn' _rr 'mr-1 worrt.n`s FAIR.-|txr~rrex'r same length as those generally used on elevated roads- about forty-Eve feet from end to end. The weight of these trains, as compared with a train drawn in the usual way by a locomotive, shows a saving of about zo tons dead weight. The motnrtzrs are equipped with four General Electric motors of the single reduction four pole type, one on each axle. These machines, one of which is shown in Fig. 6, are the most powerful railway motors yet cou- structed, developing 133 horse power each. They are geared for a speed of 3° miles an hour. Current is taken from the conductor rails by means of a sliding shoe con- tact, Fig. 7. The motors are controlled by a series par- allel controller of special type. operated by an ingenious compressed air mechanism. Themotors are connected up in a novel way. When the car is started the four motors are in series, then two in series and two short-circuited then, the four in series of two pairs of motors each in multiple, then two in multiple and two shorbcircuited and Enally all in multiple. By this method the trains are started smoothly and without jerk, and the speed is imper- ceptibly increased. Air is furnished to the controller and to the air brakes, which are Fitted to each train, by an air compressor pump, similar to that used on locomotives, but operated by an electric motor. OF THE \VEs'r1NG1{OUSE COMPANY, ELECTIRICITY BUILDING